When is a reinforcer not a reinforcer?

Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement occurs whenever an appetitive stimulus makes a behaviour more likely to be repeated (Mongillo et al., 2014); for example, giving the animal food each time they enter a particular area may positively reinforce the behaviour of entering that area. The internal mechanism of positive reinforcement involves complex interactions of neurotransmitters (dopamine, … Continue reading When is a reinforcer not a reinforcer?

Is human intelligence superior to animal intelligence?

It has traditionally been believed that the cognitive abilities of humans differentiates them and makes them superior to other animals. Charles Darwin is often credited with reducing the notion of human superiority by identifying the mechanisms of biological evolution (Erdos, 2020). However, this is somewhat overstated; for example, although Darwin believed that humans had evolved … Continue reading Is human intelligence superior to animal intelligence?

Sniffing walks and loose leash walking are not mutually exclusive

Whenever I post about allowing dogs to sniff, one of the concerns I hear is that sniffing will prevent the dog from walking nicely with the handler. It's not unreasonable to want the dog to be able to walk with us; however, it may create a conflict of interests between what the human wants from … Continue reading Sniffing walks and loose leash walking are not mutually exclusive